Most gynecological problems that include uterine fibroids, endometriosis, ovarian cysts, adhesions (scar tissue), other structural abnormalities and ectopic pregnancy can be diagnosed with the help of laparoscopy. Your physician may recommend this procedure if you have a history of past pelvic infection, pain or symptoms suggestive of pelvic disease. Your physician may also suggest laparoscopy after completing an initial infertility evaluation on both partners. It is usually performed soon after menstruation ends.
Performed under the effect of a general anesthesia, laparoscopy is usually performed as an outpatient procedure. Through the navel a needle is inserted and carbon dioxide gas is filled in the abdomen. This procedure pushes the abdominal wall away from the internal organs which helps the safe placement of the laparoscope in the abdominal cavity. Through an incision in the navel, the laparoscope is inserted. Depending on the patients earlier surgical or medical history and/or physicians experience alternate sites may also be used occasionally for inserting the laparoscope.
Yet another incision is made in the pubic region usually above it and a small probe is inserted that provides a clear picture of the pelvic organs (Figure 2). Simultaneously a dye is injected through the cervix and then the uterus and into the fallopian tubes to determine if the tubes are blocked. In case of no abnormalities, a couple of stitches or a single stitch may be used to close the incisions. Alternatively, in case of abnormalities, diagnostic laparoscopy may turn to operative laparoscopy.